Paket Informasi Perpustakaan BBLITVET No.5, 2016

Paket Informasi Perpustakaan BBLITVET

No.5, 2016

Paket Informasi Bidang Bakteriologi

  1. Casarin, L. S., Casarin, F. de O., Brandelli, A., Novello, J., Ferreira, S. O., & Tondo, E. C. (2016). Influence of free energy on the attachment of Salmonella Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes on stainless steels AISI 304 and AISI 316. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 69, 131–138. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2016.01.035

Abstract

Bacterial attachment to stainless steels AISI (American Iron and Steel Institute) 304 and 316, the preferred material choices for food equipment, is a very important food safety consideration. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the attachment of two important food pathogens on commercial samples of these surfaces focusing on the influence of material topography characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy and considering the hydrophobicity and free energy of interaction, determined by measuring contact angle and application of thermodynamic theory principles. Results showed thatS. Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes were able to attach to samples of stainless steels, however, initially (t = 0), the number of adhered S. Enteritidis (2.55 log CFU/cm2) was higher than L. monocytogenes (1.68 logCFU/cm2). Corroborating these results, the adhesion was thermodynamically more favorable for S. Enteritidis. Even though, the number of adhered cells were similar on both stainless steels samples, negative total energy was higher on AISI 316, for both bacteria. Moreover, the surface’s roughness (0.032 μm and 0.021 μm) and hydrophobicity of cells and materials did not show a positive correlation with bacterial adherence.

  1. Wang, H., Wu, N., Jiang, Y., Ye, K., Xu, X., & Zhou, G. (2016). Response of long-term acid stress to biofilm formation of meat-related Salmonella Enteritidis. Food Control, 69, 214–220. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.04.055

Abstract

Salmonella commonly preferred to survive in the pattern of biofilm rather than planktonic cells in food processing environment, where various stress was widely encountered. In the present study, the response of biofilm formation of four-isolate cocktail of SalmonellaEnteritidis on stainless steel surface to long-term acid stress was determined within a pH range of 5.0–7.2. The results showed that a short-term weak acid stress (pH 6.0 and 5.5) could enhance the attachment of S. Enteritidis, whereas short-term harsh stress significantly reduced cells attachment; Long-term weak and harsh stress obviously inhibited the biofilm formation of S. Enteritidis as compared with control group (pH 7.2), and the inhibition was significant depend on pH values, however, no difference was observed in planktonic cells numbers. Many small cell clusters rather than large cells aggregates were observed by fluorescence microscopy in harsh stress group, however, a classical process of biofilm formation and the complex three-dimensional structure formed by dense aggregates were found in control group. Consistent finding was also revealed by the observation of ATR-FTIR, which suggested that the harsh acid stress decreased the amount of various components formed in biofilm matrix, in particular of polysaccharides and proteins. Our finding suggested that long-term harsh acid stress could exert a great impact on biofilm formation of S. Enteritidis, and the obtained information was benefit for developing novel disinfection procedures in food processing industry.

  1. Liu, X., Hu, Y., Zheng, S., Liu, Y., He, Z., & Luo, F. (2016). Surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for fast, highly sensitive, and in situ detection of the magnetic nanoparticles-enriched Salmonella enteritidis. Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, 230, 191–198. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2016.02.043

Abstract

A highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor combining antibody-functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (immunoMNPs) separation is reported for rapid detection of Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis) based on the sandwich immunoassay. Here, immunoMNPs simultaneously served not only as “vehicles” for rapid delivery of analyte from a sample to the sensor surface, but also as labels increasing the measured refractive index changes associated with the binding of analyte. S. enteritidis can be detected at the concentration as low as 14 cfu/mL with a good linear signal range at 1.4 × 101–1.4 × 109 cfu/mL. Moreover, the use of immunoMNPs gives 4 orders of magnitude improvement in the sensitivity toward S. enteritidis compared with regular SPR immunosensor with direct detection format. The selectivity of proposed SPR approach was examined with Escherichia coli K12 ER2738and Lactobacillus LJ-3. The recovery of 92.76–113.25% was obtained in eggshell. The developed SPR immunosensor has potential to provide a simple, low-cost and sensitive method for in situ detection of foodborne pathogens.

  1. Zhang, P., Liu, H., Ma, S., Men, S., Li, Q., Yang, X., … Zhang, A. (2016). A label-free ultrasensitive fluorescence detection of viable Salmonella enteritidis using enzyme-induced cascade two-stage toehold strand-displacement-driven assembly of G-quadruplex DNA. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 80, 538–542. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2016.02.031

Abstract

The harm of Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis ) to public health mainly by contaminating fresh food and water emphasizes the urgent need for rapid detection techniques to help control the spread of the pathogen. In this assay, an newly designed capture probe complex that contained specific S. enteritidis-aptamer and hybridized signal target sequence was used for viable S. enteritidis recognition directly. In the presence of the target S. enteritidis, single-stranded target sequences were liberated and initiated the replication-cleavage reaction, producing numerous G-quadruplex structures with a linker on the 3′-end. And then, the sensing system took innovative advantage of quadratic linker-induced strand-displacement for the first time to release target sequence in succession, leading to the cyclic reuse of the target sequences and cascade signal amplification, thereby achieving the successive production of G-quadruplex structures. The fluorescent dye, N-Methyl mesoporphyrin IX, binded to these G-quadruplex structures and generated significantly enhanced fluorescent signals to achieve highly sensitive detection of S. enteritidis down to 60 CFU/mL with a linear range from 102 to 107 CFU/mL. By coupling the cascade two-stage target sequences-recyclable toehold strand-displacement with aptamer-based target recognition successfully, it is the first report on a novel non-label, modification-free and DNA extraction-free ultrasensitive fluorescence biosensor for detecting viable S. enteritidis directly, which can discriminate from dead S. enteritidis.

  1. Xi, H., Yuan, R., Chen, X., Gu, T., Cheng, Y., Li, Z., … Wu, Y. (2016). Purification and on-column refolding of a single-chain antibody fragment against rabies virus glycoprotein expressed in Escherichia coli. Protein Expression and Purification, 126, 26–32. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2016.05.004

Abstract

An anti-rabies virus single-chain antibody fragment of an anti-glycoprotein with the VL-linker-VH orientation, designated scFv57RN, was successfully and conveniently prepared in this study. The scFv57RN protein was mainly expressed in inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. After washing and purification, the inclusion bodies were finally obtained with an on-column refolding procedure. Further purification by gel exclusion chromatography was performed to remove inactive multimers. About 360 mg of final product was recovered from 1 L of bacterial culture. The final product showed a high neutralizing titer of 950 IU/mg to the CVS-11 strain as measured using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. Our study demonstrated a highly efficient method to mass produce scFV57RN with activity from inclusion bodies, which may be applied in the purification of other insoluble proteins.

  1. Sharma, M. K., Narayanan, J., Pardasani, D., Srivastava, D. N., Upadhyay, S., & Goel, A. K. (2016). Ultrasensitive electrochemical immunoassay for surface array protein, a Bacillus anthracis biomarker using Au-Pd nanocrystals loaded on boron-nitride nanosheets as catalytic labels. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 80, 442–449. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2016.02.008

Abstract

An anti-rabies virus single-chain antibody fragment of an anti-glycoprotein with the VL-linker-VH orientation, designated scFv57RN, was successfully and conveniently prepared in this study. The scFv57RN protein was mainly expressed in inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. After washing and purification, the inclusion bodies were finally obtained with an on-column refolding procedure. Further purification by gel exclusion chromatography was performed to remove inactive multimers. About 360 mg of final product was recovered from 1 L of bacterial culture. The final product showed a high neutralizing titer of 950 IU/mg to the CVS-11 strain as measured using the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. Our study demonstrated a highly efficient method to mass produce scFV57RN with activity from inclusion bodies, which may be applied in the purification of other insoluble proteins.

  1. Heuvelink, A., Reugebrink, C., & Mars, J. (2016). Antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from veal calves and dairy cattle in the Netherlands. Veterinary Microbiology, 189, 1–7. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.04.012

Abstract

Control of Mycoplasma bovis infections depends on good husbandry practices and antibiotic treatment. To allow more prudent use of antimicrobial drugs, there is a need for information on the susceptibility profile of this pathogen. The objective of the present study was to analyse the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical M. bovis isolates in the Netherlands. The collection comprised 95 bovine isolates, originating from lungs (n = 56), mastitis milk (n = 27), and synovial fluid (n = 12), collected between 2008 and 2014. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were assessed by broth microdilution, both by using in-house prepared MIC plates and by using commercially available MIC plates. For each antimicrobial agent, the range of MIC results, the MIC50, and MIC90values were calculated. M. bovis strains recently isolated in the Netherlands appeared to be characterized by relatively high MIC values for antimicrobial agents that, until now, have been recommended by the Dutch Association of Veterinarians for treating pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma species. Fluoroquinolones appeared to be the most efficacious in inhibiting Mbovis growth, followed by tulathromycin and oxytetracycline. The highest MIC values were obtained for erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin. Future studies should be done on determining M. bovis specific clinical breakpoints, standardization of methods to determine MIC values as well as molecular studies on detection of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of M. bovis isolates to develop PCR assays for determining resistance.

  1. Zhou, Y.-F., Yu, Y., Sun, J., Tao, M.-T., Zhou, W.-J., Li, X., … Liu, Y.-H. (2016). Ex vivo pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship of valnemulin against Clostridium perfringens in plasma, the small intestinal and caecal contents of rabbits. Anaerobe, 39, 150–157. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2016.04.005

Abstract

The pharmacokinetic (PK) and ex vivo pharmacodynamic (PD) of valnemulin againstClostridium perfringens were investigated in plasma, the small intestinal and caecal contents of rabbits following intravenous (IV) or oral administration at 3 mg/kg bodyweight (BW). The postantibiotic effect (PAE) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect (PA-SME) of valnemulin against C. perfringens ATCC13124 were also determined. The time-kill curves were established in vitro and ex vivo to evaluate the antibacterial activity of valnemulin against C. perfringens.

The elimination half-lives (T1/2λz) of valnemulin in the jejunal fluids (7.82 h) or caecal contents (14.8 h) of rabbits was significantly longer than that in plasma (2.94 h). The MIC values of valnemulin against C. perfringens ATCC13124 were both 0.063 μg/mL in the artificial medium and jejunal fluids. The PAEs of valnemulin against C. perfringens were 2.9 h (1 × MIC) and 5.03 h (4 × MIC), and the PA-SMEs ranged from 7.9 h to 11.1 h. Valnemulin exhibited rapid, time-dependent killing feature, and the ex vivo dose-response profile was closely fitted to sigmoid Emax model (r2 = 0.9985). The surrogate index of AUC24 h/MIC ratios required to achieve the bactericidal and virtual bacterial elimination effects were 57.5 and 90.1 h, respectively. Accordingly, the calculated daily dosage regimens of valnemulin for the bactericidal activity (1.96 mg/kg) and bacterial elimination (3.08 mg/kg) would be therapeutically effective in rabbits againstC. perfringens with MIC ≤0.5 μg/mL.

  1. Grass, G., Ahrens, B., Schleenbecker, U., Dobrzykowski, L., Wagner, M., Kr??ger, C., & W??lfel, R. (2016). Technical Note: Simple, scalable, and sensitive protocol for retrieving Bacillus anthracis (and other live bacteria) from heroin. Forensic Science International, 259, 32–35. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2015.11.017

Abstract

We describe a culture-based method suitable for isolating Bacillus anthracis and other live bacteria from heroin. This protocol was developed as a consequence of the bioforensic need to retrieve bacteria from batches of the drug associated with cases of injectional anthrax among heroin-consumers in Europe. This uncommon manifestation of infection with the notorious pathogen B. anthracis has resulted in 26 deaths between the years 2000 to 2013. Thus far, no life disease agent has been isolated from heroin during forensic investigations surrounding these incidences. Because of the conjectured very small number of disease-causing endospores in the contaminated drug it is likely that too few target sequences are available for molecular genetic analysis. Therefore, a direct culture-based approach was chosen here. Endospores of attenuated B. anthracis artificially spiked into heroin were successfully retrieved at 84-98% recovery rates using a wash solution consisting of 0.5% Tween 20 in water. Using this approach, 82 samples of un-cut heroin originating from the German Federal Criminal Police Office’s heroin analysis program seized during the period between 2000 and 2014 were tested and found to be surprisingly poor in retrievable bacteria. Notably, while no B. anthracis was isolated from the drug batches, other bacteria were successfully cultured. The resulting methodical protocol is therefore suitable for analyzing un-cut heroin which can be anticipated to comprise the original microbiota from the drug’s original source without interference from contaminations introduced by cutting.

  1. Sid, H., Hartmann, S., Petersen, H., Ryll, M., & Rautenschlein, S. (2016). Mycoplasma gallisepticum modifies the pathogenesis of influenza A virus in the avian tracheal epithelium. International Journal of Medical Microbiology, 306(3), 174–186. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmm.2016.04.001

Abstract

Multiple respiratory infections have a significant impact on health and economy. Pathogenesis of co-infecting viruses and bacteria and their interaction with mucosal surfaces are poorly characterized. In this study we established a co-infection model based on pre-incubation of tracheal organ cultures (TOC) with Mycoplasma (M.) gallisepticum and a subsequent infection with avian influenza virus (AIV). Mycoplasmagallisepticum modified the pathogenesis of AIV as demonstrated in TOC of two different avian species (chickens and turkeys). Co-infection promoted bacterial growth in tracheal epithelium. Depending on the interaction time of M. gallisepticum with the host cells, AIV replication was either promoted or suppressed. M. gallisepticum inhibited the antiviral gene expression and affected AIV attachment to the host cell by desialylation of α-2,3 linked sialic acids. Ultrastructural analysis of co-infected TOC suggests that both pathogens may attach to and possibly infect the same epithelial cell. The obtained results contribute to better understanding of the interaction dynamics between M. gallisepticumand AIV. They highlight the importance of the time interval between infections as well as the biological properties of the involved pathogens as influencing factors in the outcome of respiratory infections.

Paket Informasi Bidang Parasitologi

  1. Phadungsil, W., Smooker, P. M., Vichasri-Grams, S., & Grams, R. (2016). Characterization of a Fasciola gigantica protein carrying two DM9 domains reveals cellular relocalization property. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 205(1-2), 6–15. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.molbiopara.2016.02.008

Abstract

Even at the present age of whole-organism analysis, e.g., genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, the biological roles of many proteins remain unresolved. Classified among the proteins of unknown function is a family of proteins harboring repeats of the DM9 domain, a 60–75 amino acids motif first described in a small number of Drosophila melanogaster proteins. Proteins may carry two or more DM9 domains either in combination with other domains or as their sole constituent. Here we have characterized a 16.8 kDa Fasciola gigantica protein comprising two tandem repeated DM9 domains (FgDM9-1). The protein was located in the parenchyma of the immature and mature parasite and consequently it was not detected in the ES product of the parasite but only in the whole worm extract. Interestingly, extraction with SDS yielded a substantially higher amount of the protein suggesting association with insoluble cell components. In Sf9 insect cells a heterologously expressed EGFP-FgDM9-1 chimera showed cell-wide distribution but relocated to vesicle-like structures in the cytoplasm after stimulating cellular stress by bacteria, heat shock or chloroquine. These structures did not colocalize with the markers of endocytosis/phagocytosis ubiquitin, RAB7, GABARAP. The same behavior was noted for Aedes aegypti PRS1, a homologous mosquito DM9 protein as a positive control while EGFP did not exhibit such relocation in the insect cells. Cross-linking experiments on soluble recombinant FgDM9-1 indicated that the protein can undergo specific oligomerization. It is speculated that proteins carrying the DM9 domain have a role in vesicular transport in flatworms and insects.

  1. Siricoon, S., Vichasri Grams, S., Lertwongvisarn, K., Abdullohfakeeyah, M., Smooker, P. M., & Grams, R. (2015). Fasciola gigantica cathepsin B5 is an acidic endo- and exopeptidase of the immature and mature parasite. Biochimie, 119, 6–15. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2015.10.005

Abstract

Cysteine proteases of the liver fluke Fasciola have been described as essential molecules in the infection process of the mammalian host. Destinct cathepsin Bs, which are already expressed in the metacercarial stage and released by the newly excysted juvenile are major actors in this process. Following infection their expression is stopped and the proteins will not be detectable any longer after the first month of development. On the contrary, the novel cathepsin B5 of Fasciola gigantica (FgCB5) described in this work was also found expressed in later juvenile stages and the mature worm. Like all previously described Fasciola family members it was located in the cecal epithelium of the parasite. Western blot analysis of adult antigen preparations detected procathepsin B5 in crude worm extract and in small amounts in the ES product. In support of these data, the sera of infected rabbits and mice were reactive with recombinant FgCB5 in Western blot and ELISA. Biochemical analysis of yeast-expressed FgCB5 revealed that it has properties of a lysosomal hydrolase optimized for activity at acid pH and that it is able to efficiently digest a broad spectrum of host proteins. Unlike previously characterized Fasciola family members FgCB5 carries a histidine doublet in the occluding loop equivalent to residues His110 and His111 of human mature cathepsin B and consequently showed substantial carboxydipeptidyl activity which depends on these two residues

  1. Mucheka, V. T., Lamb, J. M., Pfukenyi, D. M., & Mukaratirwa, S. (2015). DNA sequence analyses reveal co-occurrence of novel haplotypes of Fasciola gigantica with F. Hepatica in South Africa and Zimbabwe. Veterinary Parasitology, 214(1-2), 144–151. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.09.024

Abstract

Cysteine proteases of the liver fluke Fasciola have been described as essential molecules in the infection process of the mammalian host. Destinct cathepsin Bs, which are already expressed in the metacercarial stage and released by the newly excysted juvenile are major actors in this process. Following infection their expression is stopped and the proteins will not be detectable any longer after the first month of development. On the contrary, the novel cathepsin B5 of Fasciola gigantica (FgCB5) described in this work was also found expressed in later juvenile stages and the mature worm. Like all previously described Fasciola family members it was located in the cecal epithelium of the parasite. Western blot analysis of adult antigen preparations detected procathepsin B5 in crude worm extract and in small amounts in the ES product. In support of these data, the sera of infected rabbits and mice were reactive with recombinant FgCB5 in Western blot and ELISA. Biochemical analysis of yeast-expressed FgCB5 revealed that it has properties of a lysosomal hydrolase optimized for activity at acid pH and that it is able to efficiently digest a broad spectrum of host proteins. Unlike previously characterized Fasciola family members FgCB5 carries a histidine doublet in the occluding loop equivalent to residues His110 and His111 of human mature cathepsin B and consequently showed substantial carboxydipeptidyl activity which depends on these two residues

  1. Barbosa, A., Austen, J., Gillett, A., Warren, K., Paparini, A., Irwin, P., & Ryan, U. (2016). First report of Trypanosoma vegrandis in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). Parasitology International, 65(4), 316–318. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2016.03.004

Abstract

The present study describes the first report of Trypanosoma vegrandis in koalas using morphology and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. The prevalence of T. vegrandis in koalas was 13.6% (6/44). It is likely that the small size of T. vegrandis(< 10 μm in length), coupled with the difficulties in amplifying DNA of this parasite in mixed infections using trypanosome generic primers, are the reason why this organism has not been identified in koalas until now. This study highlights the importance of further research comprising a larger sample size to determine the prevalence of T. vegrandis in koalas as well as its potential impacts upon this marsupial species’ health.

  1. Fraga, J., Montalvo, A. M., De Doncker, S., Dujardin, J.-C., & Van der Auwera, G. (2010). Phylogeny of Leishmania species based on the heat-shock protein 70 gene. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 10(2), 238–245. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2009.11.007

Abstract

The 70 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP70) is conserved across prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and the protein as well as its encoding gene have been applied in phylogenetic studies of different parasites. In spite of the frequent use of New WorldLeishmania species identification on the basis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) in the hsp70 gene, it was never sequenced extensively for studying evolutionary relationships. To fill this void we determined the nucleotide sequence of an 1380 bp fragment of the coding region commonly used in RFLP analysis, from 43 isolates and strains of different geographic origins. Combination with previously determined sequences amounted to a phylogenetic analysis including 52 hsp70 sequences representing 17 species commonly causing leishmaniasis both in the New and Old World. The genus Leishmania formed a monophyletic group with three distinct subgenera L. (Leishmania), L. (Viannia), and L. (Sauroleishmania). The obtained phylogeny supports the following eight species: L. (L.) donovaniL. (L.) majorL. (L.)tropicaL. (L.) mexicanaL. (V.) lainsoniL. (V.) naiffiL. (V.) guyanensis and L. (V.)braziliensis, in some of which subspecies can be recognized: L. (L.) donovani infantum,L. (V.) guyanensis panamensis, and L. (V.) braziliensis peruviana. The currently recognized L. (L.) aethiopicaL. (L.) garnhami, and L. (L.) amazonensis did not form monophyletic clusters. These findings are discussed in relation to results from other genes and proteins, which have to be integrated in order to build a genetically supported taxonomy for the entire genus.

  1. Barbosa, A. D., Mackie, J. T., Stenner, R., Gillett, A., Irwin, P., & Ryan, U. (2016). Trypanosoma teixeirae: A new species belonging to the T. cruzi clade causing trypanosomosis in an Australian little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus). Veterinary Parasitology, 223, 214–221. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2016.05.002

Abstract

Little is known about the genetic diversity and pathogenicity of trypanosomes in Australian bats. Recently a novel trypanosome species was identified in an adult female little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus) with clinical and pathological evidence of trypanosomosis. The present study used morphology and molecular methods to demonstrate that this trypanosome is a distinct species and we propose the nameTrypanosoma teixeirae sp. n. Morphological comparison showed that its circulating trypomastigotes were significantly different from those of Trypanosoma pteropi andTrypanosoma hipposideri, two species previously described from Australian bats. Genetic information was not available for T. pteropi and T. hipposideri but phylogenetic analyses at the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) loci indicated that T. teixeirae sp. n. was genetically distinct and clustered with other bat-derived trypanosome species within the Trypanosoma cruziclade.

  1. Menon, P., Sinha, A. K., Rao, K. L. N., Khurana, S., Lal, S., & Thapa, B. R. (2015). Biliary Fasciola gigantica infestation in a nonendemic area – An intraoperative surprise. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, 50(11), 1983–1986. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2015.08.009

Abstract

A 7year old girl infected with the zoonotic trematode, Fasciola gigantica is reported because of the extreme rarity of this condition in our region. Because of the overlap in symptomatology and radiological features, the more common amebic/pyogenic liver abscess in the initial hepatic migratory phase and later choledochal cyst/biliary ascariasis when the parasite was finally located in the extrahepatic bile ducts, were thought of delaying effective treatment. The diagnosis was confirmed only by surgical exploration. The characteristic contrast enhanced computed tomography scan features retrospectively identified were multiple clustered hypodense lesions in the liver with peripheral enhancement in the acute hepatic migratory phase, and periportal tracking in the previously affected areas of the liver with biliary dilatation and a linear hypointense lesion within the common bile duct in the chronic phase. Although a known association, she did not have eosinophilia. This child, who became symptomatic at the age of 5.5years, also appears to be one of the youngest patients reported with Fasciola gigantica.

  1. Meira, C. S., Barbosa-Filho, J. M., Lanfredi-Rangel, A., Guimarães, E. T., Moreira, D. R. M., & Soares, M. B. P. (2016). Antiparasitic evaluation of betulinic acid derivatives reveals effective and selective anti-Trypanosoma cruzi inhibitors. Experimental Parasitology, 166, 108–115. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2016.04.007

Abstract

Betulinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid with several biological properties already described, including antiparasitic activity. Here, the anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of betulinic acid and its semi-synthetic amide derivatives (BA1-BA8) was investigated. The anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity and selectivity were enhanced in semi-synthetic derivatives, specially on derivatives BA5, BA6 and BA8. To understand the mechanism of action underlying betulinic acid anti-T. cruzi activity, we investigated ultrastructural changes by electron microscopy. Ultrastructural studies showed that trypomastigotes incubated with BA5 had membrane blebling, flagella retraction, atypical cytoplasmic vacuoles and Golgi cisternae dilatation. Flow cytometry analysis showed that parasite death is mainly caused by necrosis. Treatment with derivatives BA5, BA6 or BA8 reduced the invasion process, as well as intracellular parasite development in host cells, with a potency and selectivity similar to that observed in benznidazole-treated cells. More importantly, the combination of BA5 and benznidazole revealed synergistic effects on trypomastigote and amastigote forms of T. cruzi. In conclusion, we demonstrated that BA5 compound is an effective and selective anti-T. cruzi agent.

  1. Desquesnes, M., Yangtara, S., Kunphukhieo, P., Chalermwong, P., Jittapalapong, S., & Herder, S. (2016). Zoonotic trypanosomes in South East Asia: Attempts to control Trypanosoma lewisi using veterinary drugs. Experimental Parasitology, 165, 35–42. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2016.03.009

Abstract

A growing number of atypical human infections due to the livestock parasiteTrypanosoma evansi, or to the rat parasite Trypanosoma lewisi, are reported in humans in Asia. In some cases, clinical evolutions request treatments, however, so far, there were very few attempts to control T. lewisi using trypanocidal drugs. In a study published elsewhere, the efficacy of human trypanocides is evaluated in laboratory rats, and it concludes that none of them is able to cure rats experimentally infected with T. lewisi. Control of T. lewisi in rat would be a step for identification of drugs against this parasite. In the present study, 4 veterinary drugs: diminazene aceturate, isometamidium chloride, melarsomine hydrochloride and quinapyramine sulfate and chloride, were evaluated at low and high doses, in intra-muscular injections to normal rats experimentally infected with a stock of T. lewisi from Thailand. None of these treatments being efficient, a trial was also made using melarsomine hydrochloride in T. evansi infected rats and in mixedT. lewisi and T. evansi infected rats, in order to demonstrate the efficacy of the drugs under the present protocol. T. evansi was cleared from the rat’s blood the day after the treatment, while, T. lewisi remained unaffected until the end of the experiment. These observations clearly demonstrated the efficacy of melarsomine hydrochloride againstT. evansi and its inefficacy against T. lewisi. In conclusion none of the veterinary drugs was efficient against this stock of T. lewisi. Other protocols using higher doses or other drugs and T. lewisi stocks should be investigated in further studies. The control ofT. lewisi infection in Wistar rats, using veterinary trypanocidal drugs, remains so far unsuccessful.

  1. Mahana, N., Abd-Allah, H. A. S., Salah, M., Tallima, H., & El Ridi, R. (2016). Fasciola gigantica enolase is a major component of worm tegumental fraction protective against sheep fasciolosis. Acta Tropica, 158, 189–196. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.03.009

Abstract

Infection of cattle and sheep with the parasite Fasciola gigantica is a cause of important economic losses throughout Asia and Africa. Many of the available anthelmintics have undesirable side effects, and the parasite may acquire drug resistance as a result of mass and repeated treatments of livestock. Accordingly, the need for developing a vaccine is evident. Triton-soluble surface membrane and tegumental proteins (TSMTP) of 60, 32, and 28 kDa previously shown to elicit protective immunity in mice against challenge F. gigantica infection were found to be strongly immunogenic in sheep eliciting vigorous specific antibody responses to a titer > 1:16,000 as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, the 60 kDa fraction induced production of antibodies able to bind to the surface membrane of newly excysted juvenile flukes and mediate their attrition in antibody-dependent complement- and cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays, and significant (P < 0.05) 40% protection of sheep against F. gigantica challenge infection. Amino acid micro sequencing of the 60 kDa-derived tryptic peptides revealed the fraction predominantly consists of F. gigantica enolase. The cDNA nucleotide and translated amino acid sequences of Fgigantica enolase showed homology of 92% and 95%, respectively to Fasciola hepatica enolase, suggesting that a fasciolosis vaccine might be effective against both tropical and temperate liver flukes.

Paket Informasi Bidang Toksikologi

  1. Alaniz Zanon, M. S., Barros, G. G., & Chulze, S. N. (2016). Non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus as potential biocontrol agents to reduce aflatoxin contamination in peanuts harvested in Northern Argentina. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 231, 63–68. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2016.05.016

Abstract

Biological control is one of the most promising strategies for preventing aflatoxin contamination in peanuts at field stage. A population of 46 native Aspergillus flavusnonaflatoxin producers were analysed based on phenotypic, physiological and genetic characteristics. Thirty-three isolates were characterized as L strain morphotype, 3 isolates as S strain morphotype, and 10 isolates did not produce sclerotia. Only 11 of 46 non-aflatoxigenic isolates did not produce cyclopiazonic acid. The vegetative compatibility group (VCG) diversity index for the population was 0.37. For field trials we selected the non-aflatoxigenic A. flavus AR27, AR100G and AFCHG2 strains. The efficacy of single and mixed inocula as potential biocontrol agents in Northern Argentina was evaluated through a 2-year study (2014–2015). During the 2014 peanut growing season, most of the treatments reduced the incidence of aflatoxigenic strains in both soil and peanut kernel samples, and no aflatoxin was detected in kernels. During the 2015 growing season, there was a reduction of aflatoxigenic strains in kernel samples from the plots treated with the potential biocontrol agents. Reductions of aflatoxin contamination between 78.36% and 89.55% were observed in treated plots in comparison with the un-inoculated control plots. This study provides the first data on aflatoxin biocontrol based on competitive exclusion in the peanut growing region of Northern Argentina, and proposes bioproducts with potential use as biocontrol agents.

  1. Quiles, J. M., Saladino, F., Mañes, J., Fernández-Franzón, M., & Meca, G. (2016). Occurrence of mycotoxins in refrigerated pizza dough and risk assessment of exposure for the Spanish population. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 94, 19–24. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2016.05.011

Abstract

Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites produced by filamentous fungi, as Aspergillus,Penicillium and Fusarium. The first objective of this research was to study the presence of mycotoxins in 60 samples of refrigerated pizza dough, by extraction with methanol and determination by liquid chromatography associated with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Then, the estimated dietary intakes (EDIs) of these mycotoxins, among the Spanish population, was calculated and the health risk assessment was performed, comparing the EDIs data with the tolerable daily intake values (TDIs). The mycotoxins detected in the analyzed samples were aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), zearalenone (ZEA), enniatin A (ENA), enniatin A1 (ENA1), enniatin (ENB), enniatin B1 (ENB1) and BEA (beauvericin) with average concentration of the positive samples of 4.09 μg/kg, 0.50 μg/kg, 0.79 μg/kg, 77.78 μg/kg, 14.96 μg/kg, 4.54 μg/kg, 3.37 μg/kg, 1.69 μg/kg and 22.39 μg/kg, respectively. The presence of ZEA, ENA1, ENB and ENB1 was detected in 100% of the samples, AFB2 in 32%, AFB1 in 23%, ENA in 8% and BEA in 3%. Twelve percent of the samples contaminated with AFB1 and 12% of the doughs contaminated with ZEA exceeded the EU legislated maximum limits. The dietary intakes were estimated considering three different age groups of population, and the EDIs calculated for the mycotoxins detected in the samples were all below the established TDI.

  1. Zhu, Y., Hassan, Y. I., Watts, C., & Zhou, T. (2016). Innovative technologies for the mitigation of mycotoxins in animal feed and ingredients-A review of recent patents. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 216, 19–29. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2016.03.030

Abstract

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by specific fungi that can be found throughout the dietary chain of animal feed. Among the agriculturally important mycotoxins are: aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), nivalenol (NIV), fumonisin B1 (FUB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), citrinin (CIT) and patulin (PAT). Economic losses and health concerns caused by increased frequencies of mycotoxin contaminations have attracted research interests toward exploring new inactivation and detoxification methods. Suggested strategies of decontamination include eliminating mycotoxins from contaminated grains, decreasing the bioavailability of such mycotoxins in the gastrointestinal tracts of animals, or directly degrading mycotoxins in feeds. Based on these points of action, a number of approaches such as adsorption, chemical treatment, and bio-transformation by catabolizing microorganisms/enzymes have been developed and optimized. This review summarizes the detoxification techniques and industrial applications (granted and pending patents) reported in the last five years (2010–2015). A clear understanding of such novel detoxification methods and development-trends can be beneficial to the feed and livestock industry and will contribute to assuring pre- and post-harvest management and processing practices are in place that maximizes the consumers’ safety and profits of livestock and related industries.

  1. Uddandarao, P., & B, R. M. (2016). ZnS semiconductor quantum dots production by an endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus. Materials Science and Engineering: B, 207, 26–32. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.mseb.2016.01.013

Abstract

The development of reliable and eco-friendly processes for the synthesis of metal sulphide quantum dots has been considered as a major challenge in the field of nanotechnology. In the present study, polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots were synthesized from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus flavus. It is noteworthy that apart from being rich sources of bioactive compounds, endophytic fungus also has the ability to mediate the synthesis of nanoparticles. TEM and DLS revealed the formation of spherical particles with an average diameter of about 18 nm and 58.9 nm, respectively. The ZnS quantum dots were further characterized using SEM, EDAX, XRD, UV–visible spectroscopy and FTIR. The obtained results confirmed the synthesis of polycrystalline ZnS quantum dots and these quantum dots are used for studying ROS activity. In addition this paper explains kinetics of metal sorption to study the role of biosorption in synthesis of quantum dots by applying Morris-Weber kinetic model. Since Aspergillus flavus is isolated from a medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida, quantum dots synthesized from this fungus may have great potential in broad environmental and medical applications.

  1. Chauhan, R., Singh, J., Sachdev, T., Basu, T., & Malhotra, B. D. (2016). Recent advances in mycotoxins detection. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 81, 532–545. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2016.03.004

Abstract

Mycotoxins contamination in both food and feed is inevitable. Mycotoxin toxicity in foodstuff can occur at very low concentrations necessitating early availability of sensitive and reliable methods for their detection. The present research thrust is towards the development of a user friendly biosensor for mycotoxin detection at both academic and industrial levels to replace conventional expensive chromatographic and ELISA techniques. This review critically analyzes the recent research trend towards the construction of immunosensor, aptasensor, enzymatic sensors and others for mycotoxin detection with a reference to label and label free methods, synthesis of new materials including nano dimension, and transuding techniques. Technological aspects in the development of biosensors for mycotoxin detection, current challenges and future prospects are also included to provide a overview and suggestions for future research directions.

  1. Geary, P. A., Chen, G., Kimanya, M. E., Shirima, C. P., Oplatowska-Stachowiak, M., Elliott, C. T., … Gong, Y. Y. (2016). Determination of multi-mycotoxin occurrence in maize based porridges from selected regions of Tanzania by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), a longitudinal study. Food Control, 68, 337–343. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.04.018

Abstract

Residents of certain areas of Tanzania are exposed to mycotoxins through the consumption of contaminated maize based foods. In this study, 101 maize based porridge samples were collected from villages of Nyabula, Kikelelwa and Kigwa located in different agro-ecological zones of Tanzania. The samples were collected at three time points (time point 1, during maize harvest; time point 2, 6 months after harvest; time point 3, 12 months after harvest) over a 1-year period. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used to detect and quantify 9 mycotoxins: aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2), fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2), deoxynivalenol (DON), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearaleneone (ZEN) in the samples following a QuEChERS extraction method. Eighty two percent of samples were co-contaminated with more than one group of mycotoxins. Fumonisins (FB1 + FB2) had the highest percentage occurrence in all 101 samples (100%) whereas OTA had the lowest (5%). For all three villages the mean concentration of FB1 was lowest in samples taken from time point 2. Conversely, In Kigwa village there was a distinct trend that AFB1 mean concentration was highest in samples taken from time point 2. DON concentration did not differ greatly between time points but the percentage occurrence varied between villages, most notably in Kigwa where 0% of samples tested positive. ZEN occurrence and mean concentration was highest in Kikelelwa. The results suggest that mycotoxin contamination in maize can vary based on season and agro-ecological zones. The high occurrence of multiple mycotoxins found in maize porridge, a common weaning food in Tanzania, presents a potential increase in the risk of exposure and significant health implications in children.

  1. Hove, M., De Boevre, M., Lachat, C., Jacxsens, L., Nyanga, L. K., & De Saeger, S. (2016). Occurrence and risk assessment of mycotoxins in subsistence farmed maize from Zimbabwe. Food Control, 69, 36–44. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.04.038

Abstract

Maize is the staple food of Zimbabweans and is consumed daily in the majority of households, particularly subsistence farming households. The objectives of this study were first, to determine the occurrence of mycotoxins in maize produced and consumed by subsistence farmers in Zimbabwe and second, to determine mycotoxin exposure through maize consumption and subsequently the human health risk. A total of 95 maize meal samples were collected from the household stores of randomly selected subsistence farming households. Maize intake data and agronomic practices of these households were investigated A multi-mycotoxin LC-MS/MS method was used to analyze and quantify mycotoxin contamination in the maize samples. Mycotoxin contamination was compared across agro-ecological zones in order to determine differences in mycotoxin contamination levels and presented. Of the toxicologically relevant mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), FB2, deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) were detected in 1, 95, 31, 24 and 15 % of the samples at mean levels of 11, 242, 120, 217 and 110 μg/kg respectively. Other mycotoxins detected in the maize were 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), FB3, alternariol-methylether (AME), AFB2, AFG1 and diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) and the percentage contamination ranged between 1 and 4 % in the maize samples. Contamination of the maize by the mycotoxins was observed at minimum levels below limit of detection for each mycotoxin and maximum levels of 105, 530, 67, 108, 3, 4 and 14 μg/kg for 15-ADON, NIV, FB3, AME, AFB2, AFG1 and DAS respectively. The median levels of each mycotoxin were reported below the limit of detection, with the exception of FB1 (median, 146 μg/kg), which was further considered in the exposure and risk assessment. Dietary exposure was derived from combining mean maize intake data and median FB1 contamination. Mean maize intake was estimated to be 26.8, 37.2, 30.1, 15.8 and 15.0 g/kg bodyweight (bw)/day for under 5s, children, adolescents, adults and the elderly respectively. Subsequently FB1 exposure from maize was calculated, to be 3.91, 5.40, 4.40, 2.30 and 2.20 μg/kg bw/day for these populations. Exposure to FB1 through maize intake was observed to equate to 196, 272, 220, 115 and 110 % of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (2 μg/kg bw/day) for under 5s, children, adolescents, adults and the elderly respectively. Subsistence farming communities in Zimbabwe are at risk of high exposure to FB1 and the risk was highest for under 5s, children and adolescents respectively.

  1. Singh, R., Kumar, M., & Bishnoi, N. R. (2016). Development of biomaterial for chromium(VI) detoxification using Aspergillus flavus system supported with iron. Ecological Engineering, 91, 31–40. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.01.060

Abstract

This study was aimed to develop the growing Aspergillus flavus biomaterial for Cr(VI) transformation and removal from simulated wastewater. Fe2+ ions have significant implication as it enhanced both chromium removal as well as sticky nature of the biomaterial. The values of Δ, i.e. the differences between the frequencies νas and νs of carboxyl group 146.59, 139.27, 152.38 by Fe(II), Cr(VI) and mix metals ions (Fe(II) + Cr(VI)) inferred the carboxylate ions bidentate coordination. The highest value in case of mix metals ions (Fe(II) + Cr(VI)) inferred that carboxylate groups have coordinated to surface Fe3+ ions increasingly with greatest bridging character. Heat flow value 31.36 J g−1 and 51.02 J g−1 in Fe2+ and Cr(VI) amended material respectively indicated that extremely little amount of the free water content was sorbed.

  1. Mousa, W., Ghazali, F. M., Jinap, S., Ghazali, H. M., Radu, S., & Salama, A. E. R. (2016). Temperature, water activity and gas composition effects on the growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus on paddy. Journal of Stored Products Research, 67, 49–55. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2016.01.003

Abstract

The main aim of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of temperature with water activity (aw) and CO2 with aw on the growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus Link on paddy. The effects of temperature (20–30 °C) and aw (0.92–0.98) on the relationship between colony diameter and aflatoxin production, and the influence of aw(0.92–0.98) and CO2 (20–80%) on the growth and toxin production were studied using full factorial design. Colony diameters were regularly measured and aflatoxins were periodically analyzed using HPLC with fluorescence detector. The growth and aflatoxin formation increased with aw at the temperatures studied, and toxin production was positively correlated with the incubation time and colony diameter. Except at 0.92 aw, as much as 80% CO2 failed to inhibit the growth of fungi completely. However, at all awlevels studied the growth parameters as estimated by Baranyi function and aflatoxin were affected by the increment in CO2 where growth rates and aflatoxin were negatively correlated with CO2 while the lag phase durations were positively correlated with CO2. Under 0.98 aw, the atmosphere enriched with 20% and 80% CO2 lead to at least 59% and 88% reduction in growth and 47% and 97% in the toxin production, respectively. At 0.95 aw, the lag phases of both isolates in average increased by a factor of 1.7–12 when the CO2 levels in the headspace were between 20 and 80% compared to the control. The growth rate and lag phase durations under the modified atmospheres were successfully described using a polynomial equation (R2 > 0.97). The results of the study could form a basis of indicative guidelines on the possible control of A. flavus and aflatoxin in paddy during temporary storage prior to drying.

Paket Informasi Bidang Virology

  1. Jarvis, J. A., Franke, M. A., & Davis, A. D. (2016). Rabies direct fluorescent antibody test does not inactivate rabies or eastern equine encephalitis viruses. Journal of Virological Methods, 234(5100), 52–53. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2016.04.005

Abstract

An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure.

  1. Kwan, N. C. L., Ogawa, H., Yamada, A., & Sugiura, K. (2016). Quantitative risk assessment of the introduction of rabies into Japan through the illegal landing of dogs from Russian fishing boats in the ports of Hokkaido, Japan. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 128, 112–123. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2016.04.015

Abstract

Japan has been free from rabies since 1958 and various preventive measures are in place protecting the country from the introduction of the disease. Historical reviews indicate that the illegal landing of dogs from Russian fishing boats in the ports of Hokkaido occurred frequently especially in the early 2000s and this could potentially be a source of introduction of rabies into Japan. The method of scenario tree modelling was used and the following entry and exposure pathway was considered the most likely route of rabies entry: a rabies-infected dog arriving on a Russian fishing boat lands in a port of Hokkaido in Japan, it becomes infectious, contacts and infects a susceptible domestic animal (companion dog, stray dog or wildlife). Input parameter values were based on surveys of Russian fishermen, expert opinion and scientific data from the literature. At present (2006–2015), the probability of the introduction of rabies as a result of one Russian fishing boat arriving at a port of Hokkaido is 8.33 × 10−10 (90% Prediction Interval (PI): 7.15 × 10−11–5.34 × 10−9), while this probability would have been 7.70 × 10−9 (90% PI: 6.40 × 10−10–4.81 × 10−8) in the past (1998–2005). Under the current situation (average annual number of boat arrivals is 1106), rabies would enter Japan every 1,084,849 (90% PI: 169,215–20,188,348) years, while the disease would have been introduced every 18,309 (90% PI: 2929–220,048) years in the past (average annual number of boat arrivals is 7092). The risk of rabies introduction has decreased 59 fold due to both the effective control of the issue of illegal landing of dogs and the decline in the number of Russian boat arrivals. Control efforts include education of Russian fishermen, establishment of warning signs, daily patrols and regular port surveillance of potential dog landing activity. Furthermore, scenario analysis revealed that the policy of mandatory domestic dog vaccination does not contribute effectively to Japan’s rabies prevention system under rabies-free situation. Although the current risk of rabies introduction is minimal, control measures against the illegal landing of dogs must be maintained. Further risk management measures, such as the removal of wildlife from the port area and regular monitoring of the rabies situation in Russia (particularly the easternmost regions), can be established to strengthen the current rabies prevention system in Hokkaido.

  1. Morla, S., Makhija, A., & Kumar, S. (2016). Synonymous codon usage pattern in glycoprotein gene of rabies virus. Gene, 584(1), 1–6. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2016.02.047

Abstract

Rabies virus (RABV) is the causative agent of a fatal nervous system ailment. The disease is zoonotic and prevalent in many developing countries. The glycoprotein (G) of RABV is the major antigenic determinant of the virus and plays a pivotal role in its neurovirulence. Various aspects of ‘G’ protein biology have been explored, but the factors affecting the nucleotide choice and synonymous codon usage have never been reported. In the present study, we have analyzed the relative synonymous codon usage and effective number of codons (Nc) using 132 ‘G’ protein genes of RABV. Corresponding analysis was used to calculate major trends in codon usage. The correlation between base composition and codon usage as well as the plot between Nc and GC3 suggest that mutational pressure is the major factor that influences the codon usage in the G gene of RABV. In addition, factors like aromaticity, aliphatic index and hydropathy have shown slight correlation suggesting that natural selection also contributes to the codon usage variations of the ‘G’ gene. In conclusion, codon usage bias in ‘G’ gene of RABV is mainly by mutational pressure and natural selection.

  1. Aiello, R., Zecchin, B., Tiozzo Caenazzo, S., Cattoli, G., & De Benedictis, P. (2016). Disinfection protocols for necropsy equipment in rabies laboratories: Safety of personnel and diagnostic outcome. Journal of Virological Methods, 234, 75–79. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2016.03.017

Abstract

In the last decades, molecular techniques have gradually been adopted for the rapid confirmation of results obtained through gold standard methods. However, international organisations discourage their use in routine laboratory investigations for rabies post-mortem diagnosis, as they may lead to false positive results due to cross-contamination. Cleaning and disinfection are essential to prevent cross-contamination of samples in the laboratory environment. The present study evaluated the efficacy of selected disinfectants on rabies-contaminated necropsy equipment under organic challenge using a carrier-based test. The occurrence of detectable Rabies virus (RABV) antigen, viable virus and RNA was assessed through the gold standard Fluorescent Antibody Test, the Rabies Tissue Culture Infection Test and molecular techniques, respectively.

None of the tested disinfectants proved to be effective under label conditions. Off label disinfection protocols were found effective for oxidizing agents and phenolic, only. Biguanide and quaternary ammonium compound were both ineffective under all tested conditions. Overall, discordant results were obtained when different diagnostic tests were compared, which means that in the presence of organic contamination common disinfectants may not be effective enough on viable RABV or RNA.

Our results indicate that an effective disinfection protocol should be carefully validated to guarantee staff safety and reliability of results.

  1. Radar, A., Nanotubes, I., Convention, U. N., & Africa, F. (2014). Zika must remain a high priority, Nature, 533, p.291.

http://www.nature.com/news/zika-must-remain-a-high-priority-1.19933

  1. Troncoso, A. (2016). Zika threatens to become a huge worldwide pandemic. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 6(6), 520–527. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2016.04.004

Abstract

The Aedes aegypti mosquito which transmits Zika virus (as well as dengue, chikungunya and yellow fever) represents a high risk for global transmission. This virus comes from Africa, the Zika forest in Uganda, where it was discovered in 1947 in a rhesus monkey. In May 2015, the first local cases were recorded in Brazil, surpassing 1.5 million cases in December of the same year. By March 2016, local transmission of Zika was recognized in 34 countries. Its clinical condition is similar to dengue febrile illness, although milder. The final geographical distribution area is constantly expanding. Recently, it has been associated with cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Venezuela and Suriname. Microcephaly was documented in Brazil. This article discusses some factors that contributed to the spread of Zika virus in South America. Climate change associated with the events of the phenomenon of “El Niño” is also analyzed. The biggest concern is how quickly Zika is spreading around the world and that it could be far more dangerous than previously thought. Zika virus infection, by its explosive potential, has every chance of becoming a global pandemic.

  1. Moulin, E., Selby, K., Cherpillod, P., Kaiser, L., & Boillat-Blanco, N. (2016). Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in the returning traveler with non-specific febrile illness. New Microbes and New Infections, 11, 6–7. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.nmni.2016.02.003

Abstract

Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue and chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerland and present a diagnostic algorithm

  1. Soni, N. R. (2016). A new looming of Zika virus. Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction, 5(3), 179–181. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjr.2016.04.014

Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, transmitted by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti. ZIKV will continue to spread and it will be difficult to determine how the virus will spread over time. Sign and symptoms of ZIKAVD (Zika virus disease) were conjunctivitis (red eyes), back pain, birth defect-abnormal brain development known as microcephaly and it is diagnosed through PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and virus isolation from blood samples.

  1. Bachiller-Luque, P., Domínguez-Gil González, M., Álvarez-Manzanares, J., Vázquez, A., De Ory, F., & Sánchez-Seco Fariñas, M. P. (2016). First case of imported Zika virus infection in Spain. Enfermedades Infecciosas Y Microbiología Clínica, 34(4), 243–246. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.eimc.2016.02.012

Abstract

We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

  1. Eisenstein, M. (2014). Poverty and pathogens. Nature, 531, 5–7. http://doi.org/10.1038/531S61a

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v531/n7594_supp/full/531S61a.html

  1. Velazquez-Salinas, L., Risatti, G. R., Holinka, L. G., O’Donnell, V., Carlson, J., Alfano, M., … Borca, M. V. (2016). Recoding structural glycoprotein E2 in classical swine fever virus (CSFV) produces complete virus attenuation in swine and protects infected animals against disease. Virology, 494, 178–89. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2016.04.007

Abstract

Controlling classical swine fever (CSF) mainly involves vaccination with live attenuated vaccines (LAV). Experimental CSFV LAVs has been lately developed through reverse genetics using several different approaches. Here we present that codon de-optimization in the major CSFV structural glycoprotein E2 coding region, causes virus attenuation in swine. Four different mutated constructs (pCSFm1-pCSFm4) were designed using various mutational approaches based on the genetic background of the highly virulent strain Brescia (BICv). Three of these constructs produced infectious viruses (CSFm2v, CSFm3v, and CSFm4v). Animals infected with CSFm2v presented a reduced and extended viremia but did not display any CSF-related clinical signs. Animals that were infected with CSFm2v were protected against challenge with virulent parental BICv. This is the first report describing the development of an attenuated CSFV experimental vaccine by codon usage de-optimization, and one of the few examples of virus attenuation using this methodology that is assessed in a natural host.

  1. Kostyuchenko, V. A., Lim, E. X. Y., Zhang, S., Fibriansah, G., Ng, T.-S., Ooi, J. S. G., … Lok, S.-M. (2016). Structure of the thermally stable Zika virus. Nature, 533(7603), 425–428. http://doi.org/10.1038/nature17994

Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV), formerly a neglected pathogen, has recently been associated with microcephaly in fetuses1, and with Guillian–Barré syndrome in adults2. Here we present the 3.7 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of ZIKV, and show that the overall architecture of the virus is similar to that of other flaviviruses. Sequence and structural comparisons of the ZIKV envelope (E) protein with other flaviviruses show that parts of the E protein closely resemble the neurovirulent West Nile and Japanese encephalitis viruses, while others are similar to dengue virus (DENV). However, the contribution of the E protein to flavivirus pathobiology is currently not understood. The virus particle was observed to be structurally stable even when incubated at 40 °C, in sharp contrast to the less thermally stable DENV3. This is also reflected in the infectivity of ZIKV compared to DENV serotypes 2 and 4 (DENV2 and DENV4) at different temperatures. The cryo-electron microscopy structure shows a virus with a more compact surface. This structural stability of the virus may help it to survive in the harsh conditions of semen4, saliva5 and urine6. Antibodies or drugs that destabilize the structure may help to reduce the disease outcome or limit the spread of the virus.

  1. Zanluca, C., & Duarte dos Santos, C. N. (2016). Zika virus – an overview. Microbes and Infection, 18(5), 295–301. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2016.03.003

Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) is currently one of the most important emerging viruses in the world. Recently, it has caused outbreaks and epidemics, and has been associated with severe clinical manifestations and congenital malformations. However to date, little is known about the pathogenicity of the virus and the consequences of ZIKV infection. In this paper, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on ZIKV.

  1. Wong, S. S.-Y., Poon, R. W.-S., & Wong, S. C.-Y. (2016). Zika virus infection—the next wave after dengue? Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, 115(4), 226–242. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfma.2016.02.002

Abstract

Zika virus was initially discovered in east Africa about 70 years ago and remained a neglected arboviral disease in Africa and Southeast Asia. The virus first came into the limelight in 2007 when it caused an outbreak in Micronesia. In the ensuing decade, it spread widely in other Pacific islands, after which its incursion into Brazil in 2015 led to a widespread epidemic in Latin America. In most infected patients the disease is relatively benign. Serious complications include Guillain–Barré syndrome and congenital infection which may lead to microcephaly and maculopathy. Aedes mosquitoes are the main vectors, in particular, Ae. aegyptiAe. albopictus is another potential vector. Since the competent mosquito vectors are highly prevalent in most tropical and subtropical countries, introduction of the virus to these areas could readily result in endemic transmission of the disease. The priorities of control include reinforcing education of travellers to and residents of endemic areas, preventing further local transmission by vectors, and an integrated vector management programme. The container habitats of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus means engagement of the community and citizens is of utmost importance to the success of vector control.

  1. Nishiura, H., Kinoshita, R., Mizumoto, K., Yasuda, Y., & Nah, K. (2016). EquationTitle: Transmission potential of Zika virus infection in the South Pacific. International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, 45, 95–97. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2016.02.017

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Zika virus has spread internationally through countries in the South Pacific and Americas. The present study aimed to estimate the basic reproduction number, R0, of Zika virus infection as a measurement of the transmission potential, reanalyzing past epidemic data from the South Pacific.

METHODS: Incidence data from two epidemics, one on Yap Island, Federal State of Micronesia in 2007 and the other in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, were reanalyzed. R0 of Zika virus infection was estimated from the early exponential growth rate of these two epidemics.

RESULTS: The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of R0 for the Yap Island epidemic was in the order of 4.3-5.8 with broad uncertainty bounds due to the small sample size of confirmed and probable cases. The MLE of R0 for French Polynesia based on syndromic data ranged from 1.8 to 2.0 with narrow uncertainty bounds.

CONCLUSIONS: The transmissibility of Zika virus infection appears to be comparable to those of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Considering that Aedes species are a shared vector, this finding indicates that Zika virus replication within the vector is perhaps comparable to dengue and chikungunya.

  1. Chen, H.-L., & Tang, R.-B. (2016). Why Zika virus infection has become a public health concern? Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, 79(4), 174–178. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcma.2016.03.001

Abstract

Prior to 2015, Zika Virus (ZIKV) outbreaks had occurred in areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Although a causal relationship between Zika infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is strongly suspected, such a connection has not yet been scientifically proven. In May 2015, the outbreak of ZIKV infection in Brazil led to reports of syndrome and pregnant women giving birth to babies with birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes; the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed ZIKV infection in Brazil. Currently, ZIKV outbreaks are ongoing and it will be difficult to predict how the virus will spread over time. ZIKV is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of infected mosquitos, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. These mosquitoes are the principle vectors of dengue, and ZIKV disease generally is reported to include symptoms associated with acute febrile illnesses that clinically resembles dengue fever. The laboratory diagnosis can be performed by using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on serum, viral nucleic acid and virus-specific immunoglobulin M. There is currently no vaccine and antiviral treatment available for ZIKV infection, and the only way to prevent congenital ZIKV infection is to prevent maternal infection. In February 2016, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) activated ZIKV as a Category V Notifiable Infectious Disease similar to Ebola virus disease and MERS.

  1. Zeweil, H. S., Rizk, R. E., Bekhet, G. M., & Ahmed, M. R. (2015). Comparing of the effectiveness of egg disinfectants against bacteria and mitotic indices of developing chick embryos. The Journal of Basic & Applied Zoology, 70, 1–15. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobaz.2014.12.005

Abstract

Total bacterial counts on hatching eggshell surface were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced as a result of using all disinfectants with different concentrations and formaldehyde fumigation treatments compared with those for eggs before treatment except for those subjected to water only which are considered as control with water. Chemical disinfectants significantly reduced the eggshell total bacterial count from 7.07 Logs to 2.41 Logs with 65.9% reduction and decreased again to 1.96 Logs with 72.3% reduction before setting in the incubator. Also, natural disinfectants significantly reduced the total bacterial count from 7.0 Logs to 1.86 Logs with 73.7% reduction and decreased again to 1.34 Logs with 81% reduction before setting in the incubator. Whereas, treatment with formaldehyde fumigation significantly reduced the bacterial count from 7.07 Logs to 2.53 Log with 64.2% reduction, but the bacterial count had increased numerically again during storage and before setting in the incubator to 4.20 Logs. Chemical disinfectant effects on developing chick embryos resulted in retarded growth as reflected by malformed limbs and beaks and muscle weakness was seen in a few hatched chicks. The mitotic indices of the spinal cord for chicks from egg treated by cumin 0.2% at 3rd and 4th day of age are slightly higher being 5.5% and 4.8% respectively, than those for other treatment and control groups. The mitotic index revealed that there was a significant (P < 0.05) difference between all disinfection and control groups on days 4, 7 and 10 of incubation with respect to skin systems, whereas skin system of newly hatched chicks did not demonstrate any significant differences between mitotic indices of experimented groups. Mitotic indices of embryonic dermal system on days 4 and 10 of incubation were slightly higher for natural disinfectant (being 4.7 and 0.1) compared with those for the chemical disinfectant (being 4 and 0.6), formaldehyde fumigation (being 3 and 0.4) and control group (being 4 and 0.9).

Paket Informasi Bidang Lain- Lainnya

  1. Porrero, C., Blanco, J., Dahbi, G., Blanco, J. E., Mora, A., Mateo, R., … Vidal, D. (2013). Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli , Salmonella spp . and Campylobacter spp . in large game animals intended for consumption : Relationship with management practices and livestock influence, Veterinary Microbiology 163, 274–281., http://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.12.026

Abstract

Although wild ruminants have been identified as reservoirs of Shiga-toxin producingEscherichia coli (STEC), little information is available concerning the role of Salmonellaspp. and Campylobacter spp. in large game species. We evaluated the presence of these pathogens in faeces (N = 574) and carcasses (N = 585) sampled from red deer (N = 295), wild boar (N = 333) and other ungulates (fallow deer, mouflon) (N = 9). Animal sampling was done in situ from 33 hunting estates during two hunting seasons.Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. strains associated with human campylobacteriosis were infrequently detected indicating that both pathogens had a limited zoonotic risk in our study area. The overall STEC prevalence in animals was 21% (134/637), being significantly higher in faeces from red deer (90 out of 264). A total of 58 isolates were serotyped. Serotypes O146:H- and O27:H30 were the most frequent in red deer and the majority of isolates from red deer and wild boar were from serotypes previously found in STEC strains associated with human infection, including the serotype O157:H7. The STEC prevalence in red deer faeces was significantly higher with the presence of livestock (p < 0, 01) where high densities of red deer (p < 0.001) were present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the occurrence ofSalmonella spp. and STEC in carcasses of large game animals. Furthermore, this study confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) that cross contamination of STEC during carcass dressing occurred, implying the likelihood of these pathogens entering into the food chain.

  1. Haack, S. K., Duris, J. W., Kolpin, D. W., Focazio, M. J., Meyer, M. T., Johnson, H. E., … Foreman, W. T. (2016). Science of the Total Environment Contamination with bacterial zoonotic pathogen genes in U . S . streams in fl uenced by varying types of animal agriculture. Science of the Total Environment, 563-564, 340–350. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.04.087

Abstract

Animal waste, stream water, and streambed sediment from 19 small (< 32 km2) watersheds in 12 U.S. states having either no major animal agriculture (control, n = 4), or predominantly beef (n = 4), dairy (n = 3), swine (n = 5), or poultry (n = 3) were tested for: 1) cholesterol, coprostanol, estrone, and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations, and 2) shiga-toxin producing and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coliSalmonella,Campylobacter, and pathogenic and vancomycin-resistant enterococci by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on enrichments, and/or direct quantitative PCR. Pathogen genes were most frequently detected in dairy wastes, followed by beef, swine and poultry wastes in that order; there was only one detection of an animal-source-specific pathogen gene (stx1) in any water or sediment sample in any control watershed. Post-rainfall pathogen gene numbers in stream water were significantly correlated with FIB, cholesterol and coprostanol concentrations, and were most highly correlated in dairy watershed samples collected from 3 different states. Although collected across multiple states and ecoregions, animal-waste gene profiles were distinctive via discriminant analysis. Stream water gene profiles could also be discriminated by the watershed animal type. Although pathogen genes were not abundant in stream water or streambed samples, PCR on enrichments indicated that many genes were from viable organisms, including several (shiga-toxin producing or enterotoxigenic E. coliSalmonella, vancomycin-resistant enterococci) that could potentially affect either human or animal health. Pathogen gene numbers and types in stream water samples were influenced most by animal type, by local factors such as whether animals had stream access, and by the amount of local rainfall, and not by studied watershed soil or physical characteristics. Our results indicated that stream water in small agricultural U.S. watersheds was susceptible to pathogen gene inputs under typical agricultural practices and environmental conditions. Pathogen gene profiles may offer the potential to address both source of, and risks associated with, fecal pollution.

  1. Abdeshahian, P., Shiun, J., Shin, W., & Hashim, H. (2016). Potential of biogas production from farm animal waste in Malaysia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 60, 714–723. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.01.117

Abstract

Anaerobic digestion of renewable feedstocks has been known as a prospective technology for the production of clean energy in the form of biogas. Biogas is a sustainable energy carrier which is mainly composed of methane (60%) and carbon dioxide (35–40%). Among the raw substances, organic matters obtained from farm animal waste are pivotal sources for biogas production. In recent years, the number of animal husbandry has drastically grown in Malaysia. Accordingly, a large amount of animal waste including manure, blood and rumen content are produced which provide a tremendous source of biogas generation. This paper presents biogas potential from the organic waste obtained from the farm animals and slaughterhouses in Malaysia. The findings of this study indicated that biogas potential of 4589.49 million m3 year−1 could be produced from animal waste in Malaysia in 2012 which could provide an electricity generation of 8.27×109 kWh year−1.

  1. Mcleod, L. J., Hine, D. W., Please, P. M., & Driver, A. B. (2015). Applying behavioral theories to invasive animal management : Towards an integrated framework. Journal of Environmental Management, 161, 63–71. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.06.048

Abstract

Invasive species wreak an estimated $1.4 trillion in damages globally, each year. To have any hope of reducing this damage, best-practice control strategies must incorporate behavior change interventions. Traditional interventions, based on the knowledge-transfer model, assume that if land managers are properly educated about risks and strategies, they will develop supportive attitudes and implement appropriate control strategies. However, the social sciences have produced a large number of behavioral models and frameworks that demonstrate that knowledge transfer, by itself, fails to change behavior. The challenge then lies in knowing which behavioral model to choose, and when, from a potentially overwhelming ‘universe’. In this paper, we review nine behavior theories relevant to invasive species management. We then introduce theBehavior Change Wheel as a tool for integrating these theories into a single practical framework. This framework links drivers of and barriers to behavior change with intervention strategies and policies, in what we consider, from an applied perspective, to be an important advance.

  1. Morel, K., Farrié, J., Renon, J., Manneville, V., Agabriel, J., & Devun, J. (2016). Environmental impacts of cow-calf beef systems with contrasted grassland management and animal production strategies in the Massif. AGSY, 144, 133–143. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2016.02.006

Abstract

To meet the increasing market demand for store male calves sold in summer, cow-calf beef cattle producers from the Charolais area, France, can opt for various strategies including changing the calving period. The objective of our study was to analyze and compare the impacts on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), energy consumption and land use of two grassland-based cow-calf beef systems in relation to their contrasted grassland management and animal production strategies. Based on repeated measurements over 2 years, we carried out a Life-Cycle Analysis on two systems designed on an experimental farm. The Aut-system was based on autumn-calvings that required budgeting for a sufficient quantity and quality of grass fodder stocks harvested to cover the high feed demands of winter-lactating cows. The Spr-system was based on spring-calvings so that the peak needs of the herd and the breeding cows coincided with peak pasture grazing period. Management of male calves relied on a more intensive use of concentrate in the Aut-system. This study showed that at identical beef live weight produced, the Spr-system required 18% more on-farm utilized agricultural area, excreted 14% more nitrogen and released 12% more enteric methane, but used 22% less mineral nitrogen fertilizer, 34% less fuel, 89% less off-farm fodder purchases, 73% less concentrate purchases and 5% less bedding straw purchases. Livestock emissions per animal were close between the two systems and accounted for 75% of gross GHG emissions. As the Aut-system had a higher animal productivity, it was able to dilute this impact at identical live weight produced (4% higher gross GHG emissions in the Spr-system). This higher productivity also enabled the Aut-system to use less land (13% higher land use in the Spr-system) but relied on greater use of inputs (31% lower energy consumption in the Spr-system). As the Aut-system involved a lower surface area to produce beef, it reduced the potential of carbon storage by grassland to offset gross GHG emissions. This is the reason why the Spr-system led to 9% lower net GHG emissions. This mixed bag of results raises the question of the relative weight lent to each environmental impact and of the complementarities between strategies in grassland-based systems at region-wide scale.

  1. Laderman-jones, B. E., Hurley, K. F., Kass, P. H., Shelter, K., Program, M., Animal, C., … Medicine, V. (2016). Survey of animal shelter managers regarding shelter veterinary medical services. The Veterinary Journal, 210(February), 68–76. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2016.02.007

Abstract

Veterinary services are increasingly used in animal shelters, and shelter medicine is an emerging veterinary specialty. However, little is known about working relationships between animal shelters and veterinarians. The aims of this survey were to characterize working relationships that shelter personnel have and want with veterinarians, identify opinions that shelter managers have regarding the veterinarians they work with, and determine areas for relationship growth between veterinarians and shelter managers. An electronic survey was distributed to 1373 managers of North American animal shelters; 536 (39.0%) responded.

Almost all shelters had some veterinary relationship, and most had regular relationships with veterinarians. The proportion of shelters that used local clinics (73.9%) was significantly higher than the proportion that retained on-site paid veterinarians (48.5%). The proportion of respondents who did not have but wanted a paid on-site veterinarian (42%) was significantly higher than the proportion of respondents who did not use local clinics but wanted to (7.9%). These data suggest shelter managers valued veterinary relationships, and wished to expand on-site veterinary services. Almost all shelters in this study provided some veterinary care, and all respondents identified at least one common infectious disease, which, for most, had a substantial negative impact on shelter successes. Respondents indicated that the most important roles and greatest expertise of veterinarians were related to surgery, diagnosis and treatment of individual animals. Education of both veterinarians and shelter managers may help ensure that shelters benefit from the full range of services veterinarians can provide, including expertise in disease prevention and animal behavior.

  1. Wei, X., Lin, W., & Hennessy, D. A. (2015). Biosecurity and disease management in China ’ s animal agriculture sector. Food Policy, 54, 52–64. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2015.04.005

Abstract

China’s livestock production sector is changing rapidly to meet a variety of challenges. The country is pursuing a major public animal health infrastructure upgrade and is seeking better integration with international public animal health programs. The intent of this article is twofold. We provide an overview of and commentary on China’s animal husbandry sector and animal disease control policies. We also assess weaknesses in its animal farm biosecurity infrastructure and institutional underpinnings. China’s animal health administration shares institutional weaknesses in common with higher-income countries, but her problems are more pronounced. Administrative failings include poorly demarcated and inconsistent oversight as well as weak accountability. Heterogeneous professional standards in animal health careers, emphasis on quantity goals over qualitative metrics, as well as a want in scientific analysis and follow-through when prioritizing are other shortcomings. Spillovers from the general economy as well as government policies on animal health career professionalization and organization of animal sector production have been, on the whole, positive developments. While animal production is changing in ways that may pose intermediate-term threats to animal and human health, the longer-term outcome is likely to be a production base that poses fewer concerns for global health.

  1. Rethorst, D. N. (2015). Animal Health Equipment Management. Veterinary Clinics of NA: Food Animal Practice, 31(2), 259–267. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvfa.2015.03.009

Summary

Proper health equipment management requires significant attention to detail. Establishing and following protocols during processing (eg, cleaning and disinfecting equipment at the end of the work day) is required to ensure a safe product that is free of defects and residues. In this age of increasing production transparency, overall cleanliness of equipment and facilities is important not only from a food safety standpoint but many view these as an overall indicator of attention to detail in the entire production system. Therefore, ensuring that needles are changed, implant guns are managed properly, vaccine is handled in an acceptable manner, and proper chute operation occurs is essential.

  1. Leroy, G., Besbes, B., Boettcher, P., Hoffmann, I., Pilling, D., Baumung, R., & Scherf, B. (2016). Factors and determinants of animal genetic resources management activities across the world. Livestock Science, 189, 70–77. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2016.05.006

Abstract

This paper investigates the factors affecting the implementation of various management activities related to the characterization, use and conservation of animal genetic resources (AnGR) across countries. The 128 official country reports provided for The Second Report on the State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture were analysed based on a multivariate approach. These reports investigated topics related the national level of AnGR diversity, the extent of characterization activities, use and breeding programmes and conservation activities, as well as capacities in AnGR management and the use of biotechnologies related to livestock breeding. A large part of the variability (34.7%) of the dataset could be explained by one synthetic variable, which could be interpreted as the general extent of AnGR related activities, and indicate that country efforts on AnGR are directed relatively homogenously towards the various activities and species considered. This variable differentiated mainly OECD and BRICS countries from less developed ones. OECD and BRICS countries also appeared to be differentiated with respect to the use of some specific biotechnologies such as cloning, genetic modification and transplantation of gonadal tissues. With regards to economic and development indicators, the first synthetic variable showed large correlation with the number of researchers in agricultural sciences per inhabitant (r=0.643) and national GDP (r=0.516). Capacities in research therefore appeared to be one of the main enabling forces for activities related to AnGR and the implementation of the Global Plan of Action (GPA) for AnGR.

  1. Jones, J. R., & Mulville, J. (2015). Isotopic and zooarchaeological approaches towards understanding aquatic resource use in human economies and animal management in the prehistoric Scottish North Atlantic Islands. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 6, 665–677. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2015.08.019

Abstract

Despite being surrounded by aquatic resources, the Prehistoric populations of the North Atlantic Islands have a complex history of aquatic resource that until now has been little understood. Specifically the changing importance and uses of aquatic resources through time, and the role of aquatic resources in the management of animals in prehistory requires further attention. This paper presents results of faunal isotopic analysis in combination with existing human isotopic evidence and zooarchaeological datasets from Neolithic, Bronze Age and Iron Age sites in the Western Isles (also known as the Outer Hebrides) and Orkney to explore the importance of aquatic resources in the lives of these prehistory populations. In Orkney coastal grazing was an important aspect in the management of sheep throughout prehistory, whereas in the Western Isles this was only evident in the Bronze Age. Aquatic protein was also used in the management of pigs in the Western Isles during the Middle Iron Age. There is little evidence of humans consuming aquatic resources in the Neolithic, and only minor evidence of consumption in the Bronze Age. During the Iron Age aquatic resources become more important in the diet of humans. The Prehistoric Atlantic Islanders of Scotland had a complex and dynamic relationship with aquatic resources, especially in the role of animal management that changed throughout the course of prehistory.

  1. Zeweil, H. S., Rizk, R. E., Bekhet, G. M., & Ahmed, M. R. (2015). Comparing of the effectiveness of egg disinfectants against bacteria and mitotic indices of developing chick embryos. The Journal of Basic & Applied Zoology, 70, 1–15. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobaz.2014.12.005

Abstract

Total bacterial counts on hatching eggshell surface were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced as a result of using all disinfectants with different concentrations and formaldehyde fumigation treatments compared with those for eggs before treatment except for those subjected to water only which are considered as control with water. Chemical disinfectants significantly reduced the eggshell total bacterial count from 7.07 Logs to 2.41 Logs with 65.9% reduction and decreased again to 1.96 Logs with 72.3% reduction before setting in the incubator. Also, natural disinfectants significantly reduced the total bacterial count from 7.0 Logs to 1.86 Logs with 73.7% reduction and decreased again to 1.34 Logs with 81% reduction before setting in the incubator. Whereas, treatment with formaldehyde fumigation significantly reduced the bacterial count from 7.07 Logs to 2.53 Log with 64.2% reduction, but the bacterial count had increased numerically again during storage and before setting in the incubator to 4.20 Logs. Chemical disinfectant effects on developing chick embryos resulted in retarded growth as reflected by malformed limbs and beaks and muscle weakness was seen in a few hatched chicks. The mitotic indices of the spinal cord for chicks from egg treated by cumin 0.2% at 3rd and 4th day of age are slightly higher being 5.5% and 4.8% respectively, than those for other treatment and control groups. The mitotic index revealed that there was a significant (P < 0.05) difference between all disinfection and control groups on days 4, 7 and 10 of incubation with respect to skin systems, whereas skin system of newly hatched chicks did not demonstrate any significant differences between mitotic indices of experimented groups. Mitotic indices of embryonic dermal system on days 4 and 10 of incubation were slightly higher for natural disinfectant (being 4.7 and 0.1) compared with those for the chemical disinfectant (being 4 and 0.6), formaldehyde fumigation (being 3 and 0.4) and control group (being 4 and 0.9).